Advancements in column chromatography: A review

Author : Ranjith Reddy Kondeti, Kranti Sri Mulpuri, Bharathi Meruga

Chromatography is a method used for separating organic and inorganic compounds. The word chromatography means \"color writing\". Chromatography is based on differential migration. The mobile phase moves through the stationary phase(column) picking up the compounds to be tested. As the mobile phase continues to travel through the stationary phase it takes the compounds with it. The classical preparative chromatography column, is a glass tube with a diameter from 5 mm to 50 mm and a height of 5 cm to 1 m. Thus, 25 g of adsorbent is required to provide a better separation in a 1 cm diameter column than in a 2 cm diameter column. As the technique column chromatography is more productive in qualitative and quantitative aspects scientists thought to improve its application in many fields. They worked on the technique to reduce the disadvantages by changing the column size, particle size of the stationary phase, changing the composition of the mobile phases etc. In the advancements of their works they developed the techniques like Flash chromatography, High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Gas Chromatography, Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography and Ultra Performance Convergence Chromatography (Super Critical chromatography). The aim of the article is to specify the changes that the scientists have made in each and every step to improve the technique (column chromatography). Now over 60% of chemical analysis worldwide is currently done with chromatography.

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