Antimalarial activity of Polyalthia longifolia (False Ashoka) against chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strain

Author : D. Santha Kumari, P.V.V. Satish, K. Somaiah, N. Sree Rekha, P. Brahmam, and K. Sunita

The present study was aimed to evaluate the antiplasmodial activity of medicinal plant Polyalthia longifolia (False Ashoka) against chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strain and cytotoxicity against THP-1 cell line. Crude extracts from dried leaves, stem bark and fruit of Polyalthia longifolia were prepared through soxhlet extraction using methanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform sequentially. These extracts were tested in vitro against P. falciparum 3D7 strain. The crude extracts were also tested for their cytotoxicity against THP-1 cell line. The phytochemical screening was also conducted with standard methods. The methanol extract of stem bark and fruit; ethyl acetate extract of stem bark and fruit showed IC50 values between 5-50 μg/mL with good antimalarial activity and were significant at P < 0.05 and P < 0.01. The methanol extract of leaf and ethyl acetate extract of fruit showed IC50 values ranged from 50 to 100 μg/mL with mild activity. Out of all the extracts, the methanol extract of fruit (IC50 = 18.00 g/mL) has shown excellent antimalarial activity. And the extracts were non toxic to THP-1 cells. The phytochemical screening has revealed the presence of alkaloids, triterpenes, flavonoids, tannins, coumarins, carbohydrates, phenols, saponins, phlobatannins and steroids.

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