Bidens pilosa attenuates monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats

Author : Esther Ngo Lemba Tom, Frida Longo, Celine Nguefeu Nkenfou, Simeon Kouam Fogue, Jean Pierre Savineau, Theophile Dimo

Bidens pilosa is an Asteraceae plant commonly used as a herb and as an ingredient in teas or herbal medicines. In the present study, we investigated the effects of an ethyl acetate extract of Bidens pilosa leaves on pulmonary hypertension in rats induced by intraperitoneal injection of monocrotaline (50 mg/kg) in Wistar rats. One week later, the animals were treated orally with the extract (100 or 200 mg/kg) or sildenafil (1.7 mg/kg) used as control drug for fourteen days. Three weeks after monocrotaline injection, pulmonary arterial pressure and lung weight was significantly increased in the vehicle-treated group, whereas they were attenuated by the extract treatment at the highest dose studied (200 mg/kg). The Fulton index (ratios of right ventricle weight to left ventricle + septum weight) was increased (P<0.01) in monocrotaline-treated rats, suggesting the occurrence of right ventricular hypertrophy. Both the extract (200 mg/kg) and sildenafil significantly (P<0.01) reduced the Fulton index. Compared to the control group, monocrotaline induced thickening of lung vessel walls with luminal narrowing. The monocrotaline-induced morphologic change was attenuated by administration of the extract. These overall results suggest that the ethyl acetate extract of Bidens pilosa might have a promising therapeutic potential for pulmonary arterial hypertension.

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