Effective Diagnosis of Giardiasis (Giardia lamblia) by Immunomagnetic Bead ELISA technique using Paramagnetic Nanoparticles
Giardiasis is considered to be endemic in all regions of the world. Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) cysts are spread in Egypt via the faecal-oral route, through cyst ingestion or with contaminated food or water. The most important clinical symptoms of giardiasis are malabsorption and diarrhea. Although microscopy has the advantage of low cost and ability to simultaneously identify other gastrointestinal parasite, the limitation of this method is that G. lamblia cysts are small and similar to many pseudoparasites. The presnt study aimed to detect the potential specificity and sensitivity of paramagnetic nanoparticles based-ELISA in diagnosing of giardiasis in stool of infected individuals. Giardia lamblia antigen in stool samples was detected by using the coproantigen ELISA, incorporated with conjugated anti-purified G. lamblia cysts antigen (PGA) with paramagnetic nanoparticles, compared to the traditional sandwich ELISA. Sandwich ELISA achieved sensitivity of 88%, specificity of 92 %, positive predictive value (PPV) of 84.61% and negative value of 93.87% while immunomagnetic bead ELISA with paramagnetic nanoparticles achieved sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of 92%, 94%, 88.46% and 95.91% respectively. In conclusion, this research provides that immunomagnetic bead ELISA is a well-established reference test for giardiasis diagnosis more than traditional sandwich ELISA.
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