Enlightenment on various aspects of neonatal septicemia: An expansive overview
The neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) today face one common problem of tackling sepsis and neonatologists remain constantly baffled by the varying patterns of microbial flora and their sensitivity patterns. Neonatal septicemia remains one of the significant causes of mortality and morbidity despite considerable progress in hygiene, introduction of new and potent antimicrobial agents and advanced measures for diagnosis and treatment. Neonatal sepsis comprises two distinct illnesses based on onset. Early onset into which sepsis occurs in the first 7 days of life, is usually a fulminant and multisystemic infection; while late‐onset sepsis is usually more insidious but may have an acute onset. Over the last two decades most of the organisms have developed higher drug resistance and management of the patients is becoming a major problem. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was first described in 1961, reported after one year of introduction of methicillin and has risen as most common nosocomial pathogens. MRSA is of serious concern not because of its sole resistance to methicillin, but also due to resistance to many other antimicrobials that are indicated on a regular basis in hospitals. Current therapeutic options for MRSA are inadequate but few expensive drugs like vancomycin, linezolid, teicoplanin, daptomycin and streptogramins may be administered. In this article, we have reviewed numerous aspects of neonatal septicemia and its management.
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