Gas chromatographic analysis and antimicrobial activities of the bark essential oil of Juniperus Recurva var squamata from Kashmir Himalayas, India
Essential oils were among the first topical and gastrointestinal antimicrobial agents used by humans. In the present study, the hydro-distilled essential oil of the bark of Juniperus recurva from Kashmir Himalayas, India was analyzed by a combination of capillary GC-FID and GC-MS analytical techniques. The study led to the identification and quantification of 28 chemical constituents belonging to different classes of terpenoids and accounting for 88.8% of the total oil composition. The oil composition was dominated by the presence of monoterpene hydrocarbons like α-pinene (20.7%), p-cymene (15.0%) and γ-terpinene (14.4%). In addition, the oil also contained 5.2% of oxygenated monoterpenes, 3.3% of oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and traces of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The oil exhibited strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ATCC-33591, vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE), Enterococcus faecium ATCC-29212, Enterococcus faecium ATCC-8042, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC-12228, with MIC values ranging from 125-250 µg/ml. It also inhibited the growth of fungal strains Candida albicans ATCC-90028, Candida albicans V-0-191 and Aspergillus niger ATCC-16404 with MIC ranging from 500-1000 μg/ml. The results of this study exhibited that the essential oil from Juniperus recurva has promising antimicrobial activity.
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