Gas chromatographic analysis and antimicrobial activities of the bark essential oil of Juniperus Recurva var squamata from Kashmir Himalayas, India

Author : Abila Rashid, Parvaiz H Qazi, Manzoor A Rather, Alsaba F Raja, Saleem Mushtaq

Essential oils were among the first topical and gastrointestinal antimicrobial agents used by humans. In the present study, the hydro-distilled essential oil of the bark of Juniperus recurva from Kashmir Himalayas, India was analyzed by a combination of capillary GC-FID and GC-MS analytical techniques. The study led to the identification and quantification of 28 chemical constituents belonging to different classes of terpenoids and accounting for 88.8% of the total oil composition. The oil composition was dominated by the presence of monoterpene hydrocarbons like α-pinene (20.7%), p-cymene (15.0%) and γ-terpinene (14.4%). In addition, the oil also contained 5.2% of oxygenated monoterpenes, 3.3% of oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and traces of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The oil exhibited strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ATCC-33591, vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE), Enterococcus faecium ATCC-29212, Enterococcus faecium ATCC-8042, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC-12228, with MIC values ranging from 125-250 g/ml. It also inhibited the growth of fungal strains Candida albicans ATCC-90028, Candida albicans V-0-191 and Aspergillus niger ATCC-16404 with MIC ranging from 500-1000 μg/ml. The results of this study exhibited that the essential oil from Juniperus recurva has promising antimicrobial activity.

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