PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE LEAVES OF Anacardium occidentale Linn
This present work was conducted to explore the micro morphology and physico chemical parameters of the leaves of Anacardium occidentale Linn. (Anacardaceae). Macroscopy, microscopy, physicochemical analysis, preliminary phytochemical screening and other WHO recommended parameters for standardizations were performed. A.occidentale Linn is a small, spreading, evergreen tree reaching upto a height of 12 m. Leaves (10-20 cm long) are opposite, Obovate or Obovate- oblong, green and glabrous with entire often undulated margin, Obtuse –retuse or rounded tip apex and cuneate base with stout petiole. Microscopic evaluation revealed the presence of abaxial epidermis with paracytic stomata, apostomatic adaxial epidermis with thick wavy anticlinal walls, xylem vessels, parenchyma, tanniniferous cells, fibres and glandular trichomes. Petiole showed epidermis, vascular strands, ground tissue, secretary cavities, and calcium oxalate crystals. Vein islet numbers, vein termination numbers, stomatal number, stomatal index and other physico chemical tests like ash values, loss on drying, extractive values were determined. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of sterols, tannins, proteins and aminoacids, flavonoids, mucilage, glycosides, volatile oil, terpenoids, saponin, carbohydrates and absence of alkaloids, fixed oil. Microscopic analysis was informative and provides useful information in the botanical identification, standardization for purity & quality and immense value in authentication of the leaf.
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