The Prevention and Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation using Russian Propolis Ethanol Extracts
In this study, the exposure of three Russian Propolis ethanol extracts from different regions in Russia was used in: 1) the prevention and 2) treatment of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms on various surfaces. It was found that despite similar activities against biofilm prevention (planktonic bacteria), drastic differences were observed in biofilm treatments. The antibacterial and anti-biofilm results indicated that: 1) antibacterial and 2) anti-biofilm activity of Russian propolis ethanol extracts may be governed by different types of chemical compounds found in the propolis ethanol extracts. Further analysis indicated that the mechanism of action of propolis ethanol extracts appear to be complex and involves the degradation of the extracellular polymeric matrix, exposing the bacteria within the biofilm to the antibacterial agents found in the propolis extracts. Kinetic studies conducted under optimal experimental conditions, revealed that bacterial cells in Staphylococcus aureus biofilms were killed (>99.9%) by propolis after 12 hours of treatment. The sterilization ability of propolis for the prevention and treatment of biofilm related contaminations on various materials were confirmed and information gathered from this study provides insights into the anti-biofilm mechanism of propolis.
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